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Julia Anderson

Articles by Julia Anderson

Not all foreign investment is welcome in Europe

November 10, 2020

A new plan to tackle foreign subsidies would empower the European Commission to investigate foreign investments in the European Union, with Chinese investment particularly in the spotlight. This increased scrutiny could deter some investors. Overall however, fairer competition is worth some lost opportunities.
Imagine that the Tour de France allowed non-French competitors, and only non-French competitors, to use performance-enhancing drugs. Now imagine these rules were changed to ban the use of drugs for all competitors. It would surely make for a fairer race. But at what cost? Testing expenses would grow. False positives would rise. Burdensome testing procedures might deter foreign entrants.
Similar trade-offs arise in the European Commission’s plan, published in June, to redress its

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COVID-19: The self-employed are hardest hit and least supported

April 8, 2020

Self-employed workers are hardest-hit by COVID-19 lockdowns. Yet they often receive less government support than salaried employees. Is the disparity justified?
Julia Anderson
Date: April 8, 2020
Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance

Government support packages to help workers endure the disruptions caused by COVID-19 are ostensibly generous but often discriminatory. In many countries, self-employed workers receive less support than salaried employees. In the Netherlands, for example, a worker who usually earns €3,000/month receives €1,200 less in COVID-19 support if she is self-employed. Are there good reasons for this unequal assistance?
Self-employed workers are hardest-hit by COVID-19
The self-employed represent 14% of the EU workforce (Eurostat, 2018). They work

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The dynamics of data accumulation

February 11, 2020

The bigger you are, the more data you can harvest. But does data accumulation necessarily breed monopolies in AI and related machine learning markets? By: Julia Anderson Date: February 11, 2020 Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Each new sunrise increases the certainty that the sun will rise tomorrow. The more we know about the past, the better we can predict the future. The same holds true in important AI and related machine learning (ML) applications, where great volumes of data are needed to reach marketable levels of predictive accuracy.To maintain dynamism in ML markets, competition authorities must thus ensure that all participants access the data they need to compete viably. But how much is enough? Is more always better, or is there a point where additional

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Do AI markets create competition policy concerns?

January 23, 2020

AI markets are young and their structure is yet to crystallise. Is European competition law ready for what happens next?As the EU Executive Vice President for a Europe Fit for the Digital Age and Competition Commissioner, Margrethe Vestager holds both an industrial and a competition policy mandate. This dual mandate provides complementary, and potentially conflicting, instruments to support and restrain artificial intelligence (AI) in Europe.[1] This article, the first in a series about AI, explores the synergies of this unusual combination.Should they come to accrue significant market power, tech firms may find themselves in a position to slow down the adoption of AI. And yet, Europe’s existing competition law gives Brussels the ability to protect AI-fueled growth and innovation from

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