The total expenditure by the Leave and Remain campaigns is given in the Electoral Commission Report: Report on the regulation of campaigners at the referendum on the UK’s membership of the European Union held on 23 June 2016 . The final spending is summarised in this graph: Across all campaign groups Remain spent £19.3m and Leave spent £13.3m.The lead campaigns each had a spending limit of £7m but other campaigners had their own spending limits. Remain had more campaign groups so had the higher spending limit of £31m compared with Leave's £21,500,000.Spending of largest campaigns Labour and Lib-Dems together spent as much as Vote Leave Limited. The In Campaign was a front for the "European Movement" and Leave.EU was a front for UKIP.These are the Electoral Commission figures.
John considers the following as important:
This could be interesting, too:
J. writes BBC News Suppression to 9/8/2020
J. writes China and Russia Launch War on Dollar?
J. writes What is Happening in the World Today
Across all campaign groups Remain spent £19.3m and Leave spent £13.3m.
The lead campaigns each had a spending limit of £7m but other campaigners had their own spending limits. Remain had more campaign groups so had the higher spending limit of £31m compared with Leave's £21,500,000.
|Spending of largest campaigns|
These are the Electoral Commission figures. However, the Government
backed the Remain Campaign and boosted Remain expenditure in two ways.
It directly spent over £9m
on pro-Remain publications including sending a pamphlet that backed
Remain to every household in the country. It tipped off foreign
contributors to Remain about the cut off date for declaring
contributions, this allowed several millions to be contributed by the US
Investment Banks. As the Guardian put it: "The US banks
are free to make donations now because the rules of the
referendum have not been set and the campaigns are not officially
registered. Once the rules are established, [foreign] businesses’ ability to
contribute may be restricted." (See Guardian Article).
A strange feature of the Electoral Commission figures is that StrongerIn spent more than the official figure for the entire Remain referendum campaign but only declared under £7m. See StrongerIn(In Campaign) Accounts (Open Britain Ltd):
|In Campaign (StrongerIn) spending|
Remain spent at least £41m when the true In Campaign and Government expenditure is included. Leave groups spent £13.3m.
A great deal of publicity has been given to Arron Banks for excess spending. Mr Banks' donation has been covered in the media as £8m rather than £2.9m. £8m was indeed donated but only £2.9m was spent owing to the rules for spending limits. Banks was referred to the Met for prosecution but the investigation was dropped by the Metropolitan Police. There was no huge Arron Banks electoral fraud. It was a feature of the EU Referendum campaign for prosecutions and investigations to be mounted that received huge publicity only to be withdrawn or fail later with scarcely a word of the withdrawal or acquittal appearing in the Media. Darren Grimes (BeLeave) was also prosecuted and was subsequently exonerated.
Successful penalties for false declarations of spending/donations were applied against these Remain groups: The European Movement, the Liberal Democrats, Best for our Future Ltd, Unison, StrongerIn (In Campaign) and these Leave groups: Constitutional Research Council , Leave.EU, Vote Leave.
Overall the fraudulent donations/spending that the Electoral Commission intercepted were less than 10% of spending.
Significant Supporters of Remain
The "European Movement" (President Lord Heseltine, Vice President Kenneth Clarke). It set up StrongerIn/The In Campaign, the lead Remain campaign.
The Conservative Party and Government in 2016.
The Labour Party
The Green Party
The World Economic Forum
US Investment Banks (Goldman Sachs etc).
Significant Supporters of Leave
The Daily Mail
Foreign Interference in the Referendum Campaign
Far and away the greatest social media interference in the EU Referendum campaign was from Irish and EU social media campaigning. The European Movement is a pan-EU organisation and mobilised its membership base, especially in Ireland (The European Movement in Ireland is largely financed by the Irish Government).
The EU also campaigned for the UK to Remain, fielding officials and politicians throughout the campaign and after the vote, and modulating its negotiations to disturb UK politics. The EU industry groups such as Bilderberg encouraged their members to campaign (RyanAir, Airbus, BMW etc., Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan(Tony Blair is their International President)).
Given that Irish and EU interference was intense and obvious it is peculiar that a small amount of Russian interference always gets covered in the headlines. Clearly the Remain press and broadcasters still cannot believe they lost. If hundreds of German and thousands of Irish European Movement members were campaigning with millions of tweets and posts on Social Media why would 47000 tweets originating in Russia be creating such a stir? They should not have happened but are a drop in the ocean compared with foreign Remain interference.
There is also strong circumstantial evidence that the Twitter platform itself worked on behalf of Remain. (See Is Twitter a Menace?). The use of shadow banning and direct expulsion of Leave campaigners by Twitter probably dwarfs any other foreign Social Media bias.
The democratic legitimacy of the Referendum
There can be little doubt that without massive outspending of Leave by Remain, Government interference (the failed Treasury "Predictions"), the huge US Investment Bank funding, the BBC Bias and the vast foreign Social Media campaign by Remain the Leave margin of victory would have been far higher. However, Leave did win. The Leave victory was confirmed in two subsequent General Elections. There can be no doubt that the decision to Leave the EU is legitimate and entirely democratic, perhaps the most democratic decision ever made in the UK. It was not fair because the margin should have been far higher for Leave had the biased practices and finance been removed. It must rank as the greatest triumph of the ordinary citizen against the Establishment, especially the Corporate Elite, in British history.